Basis of Paleo : How Fat Dissolves and What happens to that Fat that dissolves ?
இந்த கட்டுரையின் தமிழ் வடிவம் மாவுச்சத்து குறைவாக சாப்பிடுவதால் கொழுப்பு எப்படி கரைகிறது; கரைந்த கொழுப்பு என்னவாகிறது ? என்ற பக்கத்தில் உள்ளது
I am not afraid of change. I am more afraid of staying the same
– Joseph Roy Fredericks
The Fat in your body is not constant. It changed. It changes. And it will Change. Change every day, every hour, every minute and every second. At any given moment, new fat is made and a part of fat gets degraded
Now image the overhead tank in your house. It has an inflow from Well or Underground Water Sump. And the overhead tank has an outflow of water to various rooms in your home
- If the inflow into the tank matches the outflow, then the level of water will be constant.
- If the inflow is greater than the outflow, then the level of water will increase.
- If the inflow is lesser than the outflow, then the level of water will decrease.
Same way, Coming back to fat
- If the amount of fat synthesized is equal to the amount of fat degraded, then the fat in your body will be constant
- If the amount of fat being made is greater than the amount of fat being broken, then you will keep on gaining weight and become obese.
- If the amount of fat being made is lesser than the amount of fat being broken, then you will keep on losing weight and become lean.
The Fats / Lipids in Body exist in two forms
- Element Constant of Structural Lipids. These form the various structures and are relatively constant. These are mainly phospholipids
- Element Variable or stored Lipids or Depot. These are mainly used for Fat Storage and the amount of this varies as per the food and need. These are Mainly Triglycerides. These are the ones which get deposited in your belly and gluteal region and in other regions making you obese
How are Triglycerides Made
Triglycerides are made from two components
- Free Fatty Acids : These are derived from the Fat as well as from Carbohydrates in the food
- Glycerol Phosphate : These are derived from the Carbohydrate in Food
So, to make Triglycerides, you need either Fat + Carbs or Carbs Alone. With Fat alone, little Triglycerides are synthesised.
The process of synthesis of Triglycerides (aka Belly and Buttocks Fat) is supported by few hormones and opposed by few hormones
Insulin Supports this synthesis
How are Triglycerides Broken
Triglycerides are broken to Glycerol Phosphate and Free Fatty Acid by an enzyme called Hormone Sensitive Triglyceride Lipase. This action is inhibited by Insulin and favoured by
- Growth Hormone
Effect of Insulin
Insulin favours Formation of Triglycerides. Insulin Opposes Breaking down of Triglycerides. Insulin favours formation of adipose tissue and inhibits breakdown of adipose tissue. In Short, Insulin leads to a person becoming obese, gaining wait
What happens in Carbohydrate Rich Food
When the food is rich in Carbohydrates,
- More Glycerol Phosphate is formed. More Substances to form Fat
- More Free Fatty Acids are formed
- More Insulin is secreted by Pancreas. More Stimulus for Fat Formation. Less Stimulus for Fat Breakdown
All these three act to create more and more fat or adipose tissue and the person becomes obese, even if he does not take fat in his meal
In short, during Carbohydrate Rich Food, the rate of formation of fat is higher than the rate of destruction of fat, leading to net increase of fat in the body
What happens in Low Carbohydrate High Fat Food
When the food does not have Carbohydrates or when the food has low Carbohydrates
- Less Glycerol Phosphate is formed. Hence there is less substance needed formation of fat
- Less Insulin Secretion. Hence less stimulation for Fat Formation
- Less Insulin Secretion. So there is more breakdown of fats by the hormones like Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Glucagon, Growth Hormone, Glucocorticoids, ACTH, MSH, TSH, Vasopressin
So, in short, during a Low Carbohydrate diet, the formation of fat is very less, but destruction (degradation or lipolysis) of fat is accelerated leading to net loss of fat in the body. Hence people lose weight and also the fat stores in their abdominal wall and gluteal region begin to disappear
What happens to the Fat that is broken down
The Fat is broken down into Glycerol Phosphate and Free Fatty Acids. Of this
- Glycerol Phosphate can be converted to Dihydroxy acetone Phosphate and this can be converted to Glyceraldehyde Phosphate which is an intermediary in the breakdown of Glucose. Hence this enters the Glycolytic Pathway. So, even though there is no Glucose in the diet, there is an element which enters the Glycolytic pathway during LCHF Meal.
- The Fatty Acids are used to Generate Energy